Home Electrical Energy Efficiency

Table of Contents
Free Home Best Practices
Hot WaterPool Pumps
Air ConditioningRefrigeration
Incandescent Lights vs CFL vs LEDHalogen Lights vs LED Lights
TelevisionPossible Standby costs table per year
DryerWashing Machine
Audio EquipmentDVD and Video players
Draft StopperInsulation
One Watt StandbyLinear vs. Switched Mode Power supplies
Power board with remote
Energy Efficiency Targets

Free Home Best Practices

Simple good habits can save you power without being too inconvenient. Your changes in habit and therefore power consumption can be viewed on a building power meter. You should be aiming to keep its average reading as low as possible.

Here are some suggestions on how to keep your total consumption low.

  • Keep your showers to a maximum of 4 minutes
  • Turn off lights as you leave the room
  • Turn off computers when not in use
  • Turn off entertainment equipment at the wall when you have finished using them
  • Use sunlight instead of artificial light
  • Dress appropriately to the climate
  • Use natural breezes before fans and air conditioners
  • Where possible use fans instead of air conditioning
  • Close doors and windows if using air conditioning to reduce load
  • Fans can be used to assist air conditioners distribute air
  • Set cooling air conditioning to 24 degrees Celsius
  • Set reverse cycle air conditioning heating to 20 degrees Celsius
  • Clean air conditioner filters regularly
  • Fix any hot water leaks or drips quickly
  • Use cold water in your washing machine
  • Hang washing on a line instead of using the dryer
  • Clean dryer filter regularly
  • When going away for holidays turn off most electrical devices at the power point.
  • Try to use only one fridge, or if buying in bulk keep a second fridge or freezer well stocked to improve efficiency

Hot Water

Producing hot water for your home is a large part of your electricity consumption. You consume electricity when using hot water, when it is heating up and when it is maintaining the temperature of the storage tank. Electricity consumption of hot water heaters can be in the order of 3600 to 6000 Watts. One way to save on hot water usage is to have water saving shower heads that only use 9 litres per minute. Installed aerators in your bathroom taps to reduce water use down to 5 litres per minute. For kitchen and laundries the recommended aerator reduces water consumption down to 7 litres per minute. It takes 0.052 kWh to heat 1 litre of water 45 degrees Celsius. Estimate your potential savings in hot water consumption by initially measuring your current water consumption rate by timing how long it takes to fill a known sized container. A rough regular figure would be 20 litres per minute. Then estimate your total showering time per day, total hand washing time per day, total dish rinsing time per day etc. Calculate your total water use for a day and then multiple by 365 to work out yearly consumption. An estimate needs to be made on what proportion of water used is from the hot water supply. Compare your water consumption rate now against what you could be saving as seen in the example shown below.

No. of People Shower time (minutes) Days in year Consumption in litres per minute Proportion hot water Yearly Hot Water Usage
3 5 365 20 0.5 54750
3 5 365 9 0.5 24637.5
Saving 30112.5

Once you have a total yearly figure for your hot water usage use the following litres versus $ kWh table to show your savings per year (use your local cost of electricity column).

Litres / $kWh Local cost of electricity in dollars per kilowatt hour (kWh)
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
5000 $21 $26 $31 $36 $42 $47 $52 $57 $62
10000 $42 $52 $62 $73 $83 $94 $104 $114 $125
15000 $62 $78 $94 $109 $125 $140 $156 $172 $187
20000 $83 $104 $125 $146 $166 $187 $208 $229 $250
25000 $104 $130 $156 $182 $208 $234 $260 $286 $312
30000 $125 $156 $187 $218 $250 $281 $312 $343 $374
35000 $146 $182 $218 $255 $291 $328 $364 $400 $437
40000 $166 $208 $250 $291 $333 $374 $416 $458 $499
45000 $187 $234 $281 $328 $374 $421 $468 $515 $562
50000 $208 $260 $312 $364 $416 $468 $520 $572 $624
55000 $229 $286 $343 $400 $458 $515 $572 $629 $686
60000 $250 $312 $374 $437 $499 $562 $624 $686 $749
65000 $270 $338 $406 $473 $541 $608 $676 $744 $811
70000 $291 $364 $437 $510 $582 $655 $728 $801 $874

The cost of water saving hardware is approximately $40 for a shower rose and $10 for an aerator. You will need to add labour costs for fitting if necessary. The table shows that the water saving investment of installing water saving devices and therefore your power saving investment is a worthwhile consideration.

Suggestions: Fix any hot water leaks or drips quickly.

Alternatives: Heat Pump Hot Water, Gas or Solar Hot Water, Instant Gas Hot Water.

Related Sections: Solar Hot Water Co-Generation

Local Assistance: Hot Water Calculator Solar Hot Water Calculator

References for further information 1 5 6 7 123 126

Table of Contents Reference Links

Pool Pumps

To make your pool pump more electrically efficient us a timer to control it's operating hours. This will save your significant amounts of energy over a year. An electrical timer can cost less than $10. Pumps use 500 to 1500 watts. To make a comparison we've used an average of a 1000 Watt for the pump load and look at the costs for running it from 1 to 24 hours per day by using your local cost of electricity column.
Variable speed pumps can also save energy. High speed can be used for cleaning and low speed for filtering.

To compare the yearly cost of running a 1kW pump for 1-24 hours per day use your local cost of electricity column

Hours a day / $kWh Local cost of electricity in dollars per kilowatt hour (kWh)
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
1 $29 $37 $44 $51 $58 $66 $73 $80 $88
2 $58 $73 $88 $102 $117 $131 $146 $161 $175
3 $88 $110 $131 $153 $175 $197 $219 $241 $263
4 $117 $146 $175 $204 $234 $263 $292 $321 $350
5 $146 $183 $219 $256 $292 $329 $365 $402 $438
6 $175 $219 $263 $307 $350 $394 $438 $482 $526
7 $204 $256 $307 $358 $409 $460 $511 $562 $613
8 $234 $292 $350 $409 $467 $526 $584 $642 $701
9 $263 $329 $394 $460 $526 $591 $657 $723 $788
10 $292 $365 $438 $511 $584 $657 $730 $803 $876
11 $321 $402 $482 $562 $642 $723 $803 $883 $964
12 $350 $438 $526 $613 $701 $788 $876 $964 $1,051
13 $380 $475 $569 $664 $759 $854 $949 $1,044 $1,139
14 $409 $511 $613 $715 $818 $920 $1,022 $1,124 $1,226
15 $438 $548 $657 $767 $876 $986 $1,095 $1,205 $1,314
16 $467 $584 $701 $818 $934 $1,051 $1,168 $1,285 $1,402
17 $496 $621 $745 $869 $993 $1,117 $1,241 $1,365 $1,489
18 $526 $657 $788 $920 $1,051 $1,183 $1,314 $1,445 $1,577
19 $555 $694 $832 $971 $1,110 $1,248 $1,387 $1,526 $1,664
20 $584 $730 $876 $1,022 $1,168 $1,314 $1,460 $1,606 $1,752
21 $613 $767 $920 $1,073 $1,226 $1,380 $1,533 $1,686 $1,840
22 $642 $803 $964 $1,124 $1,285 $1,445 $1,606 $1,767 $1,927
23 $672 $840 $1,007 $1,175 $1,343 $1,511 $1,679 $1,847 $2,015
24 $701 $876 $1,051 $1,226 $1,402 $1,577 $1,752 $1,927 $2,102

Suggestions: Have your pool pump connected to off peak electricity to save costs. Adjust the pump timer to suit the season of use. I.e. more in summer when the pool is most in use and need for filtration is highest. Consider copper and/or silver ionization to lower the required pumping hours and chemicals needed.

Related Sections: Timers Power Factor Correction

Local Assistance: Appliance Energy Calculator

References for further information 1

Table of Contents Reference Links

Air Conditioning

The air conditioning requirements for an area is dependant on many factors. Careful building design and use can minimize the size of the air conditioner required and its running costs. Parameters to consider include the size of the room; the size and orientation of windows and doors; if insulation is in the walls and ceiling; the number of people present; and the total electrical devices in the room.

Local climate should influence a building's design to take into consideration the sun's path relative to the buildings orientation and how eaves can reduce walls heating up. Consider investing in insulation before adding an air conditioner. Well insulated buildings will reduce your air conditioning requirement and running costs with a good return on your investment. Careful selection of electrical equipment and minimising its energy consumption and related heat output will have an added benefit in reduced air conditioning costs. Running some air conditioners on off peak electricity can generate worthwhile savings. Reverse cycle air conditioners are one of the most efficient area heating devices. Air conditioners with an inverter circuit design control the compressor speed very efficiently which therefore controls the room temperature with greater precision. Look for air conditioners with Energy Star labels. Reverse cycle models will have 2 sets of stars for heating and cooling. Air condtioner efficiency has improved about one third in the last 10 years. Look at the output kW versus input kW to compare efficiencies.

Landscaping can have an influence on the shading of a building and the breezes available which may reduce air conditioner running hours. In hot dry climates evaporative cooling has lower running costs compared to refrigerated air conditioning.

To compare the six month maximum cost of running a 1.66kW power input (~5kW cooling) split system air conditioner for 1-24 hours per day use your local cost of electricity column

Hours a day / $kWh Local cost of electricity in dollars per kilowatt hour (kWh)
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
1 $25 $31 $37 $43 $49 $55 $61 $67 $74
2 $49 $61 $74 $86 $98 $110 $123 $135 $147
3 $74 $92 $110 $129 $147 $166 $184 $202 $221
4 $98 $123 $147 $172 $196 $221 $245 $270 $294
5 $123 $153 $184 $215 $245 $276 $307 $337 $368
6 $147 $184 $221 $258 $294 $331 $368 $405 $442
7 $172 $215 $258 $300 $343 $386 $429 $472 $515
8 $196 $245 $294 $343 $392 $442 $491 $540 $589
9 $221 $276 $331 $386 $442 $497 $552 $607 $662
10 $245 $307 $368 $429 $491 $552 $613 $675 $736
11 $270 $337 $405 $472 $540 $607 $675 $742 $809
12 $294 $368 $442 $515 $589 $662 $736 $809 $883
13 $319 $399 $478 $558 $638 $717 $797 $877 $957
14 $343 $429 $515 $601 $687 $773 $858 $944 $1,030
15 $368 $460 $552 $644 $736 $828 $920 $1,012 $1,104
16 $392 $491 $589 $687 $785 $883 $981 $1,079 $1,177
17 $417 $521 $625 $730 $834 $938 $1,042 $1,147 $1,251
18 $442 $552 $662 $773 $883 $993 $1,104 $1,214 $1,325
19 $466 $583 $699 $816 $932 $1,049 $1,165 $1,282 $1,398
20 $491 $613 $736 $858 $981 $1,104 $1,226 $1,349 $1,472
21 $515 $644 $773 $901 $1,030 $1,159 $1,288 $1,416 $1,545
22 $540 $675 $809 $944 $1,079 $1,214 $1,349 $1,484 $1,619
23 $564 $705 $846 $987 $1,128 $1,269 $1,410 $1,551 $1,692
24 $589 $736 $883 $1,030 $1,177 $1,325 $1,472 $1,619 $1,766

Suggestions: Set cooling temperature to 24 degrees Celsius, set heating temperature to 20 degrees Celsius and use timers if available. Close doors and windows when using an air conditioner. Keep air conditioning filters clean for operating efficiency.

Related Sections: Draft Stopper Work Air Conditioning Timers Insulation Measurement

Local Assistance: Appliance Energy Calculator

References for further information 1 4 8 9 123 126

Table of Contents Reference Links

Refrigeration

Fridges are one of the larger consumers of electricity that operate full time. Expect each fridge to consume between $30 and $130 per year, dependant on its size. Energy efficiency in refrigeration has improved over time and minimum standards have been in place since 1999 and then were improved again in 2005. Look for the Energy Star labels for you're in the shop comparisons and note the expected kWh/year consumption. Older fridges usually have poorer efficiency. Disposal of fridges from the early 1990s or earlier may require special procedures as they probably contain CFC gas and may require special procedures. Setting the fridge at 3 degrees Celsius and the freezer at -18 degrees Celsius is recommended and this can be confirmed using a fridge thermometer.

Suggestions: Look up Energy Star award winner fridges for comparison before purchasing one (see references). Confirm the fridge can fit through the doorways into the final location. Try to use only one fridge/freezer. Allow an air gap around the fridge for heat dissipation. Avoid leaving the fridge door open for extended time. Fix any door seal issues quickly. Having a fridge fairly full will reduce the amount of cold air lost when the door is opened. Confirm the door opens the way that suits your location.

Related Sections: Measurement

Local Assistance: Appliance Energy Calculator

References for further information 4 123 124

Table of Contents Reference Links

Incandescent Lights vs. CFL vs. LED Lights

Your choice of lighting is an easy method to reduce energy consumption.

Light Emitting Diode (LED) lights uses approximately 85% less energy for the same light output as incandescent lights. LED have lifespans of 15,000 to 30,000 hours. LED tube lighting uses approxmately 50% less energy than CFL tubes. Note that the starter also needs to be replaced for LED operations.

Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFL) use approximately 80% less energy for the same light output as incandescent lights. CFL have a life span of 10,000 hours compared to an incandescent 1000 hour life.

Consider the light physical size, wattage and connection thread. e.g. Bayonet Cap (BC) or Edison Screw (ES). Your priority should be to replace those lights that are used the most. Also consider the labour costs necessary. The return on investment shown in the tables below is after a few hundred hours of use. CFL and LED can be bought in most supermarkets and hardware stores. Specialised CFL and LED can be used with dimmers. Added benefits include less heat output which reduces air conditioning running costs. There is an Australian Government policy to prevent incandescent light bulb imports after November 2008 and prevent incandescent light bulb sales after November 2009.

Yearly cost of running a 60 watt incandescent light bulb

Hours a day / $kWh Local cost of electricity in dollars per kilowatt hour (kWh)
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
1 $1.75 $2.19 $2.63 $3.07 $3.50 $3.94 $4.38 $4.82 $5.26
2 $3.50 $4.38 $5.26 $6.13 $7.01 $7.88 $8.76 $9.64 $10.51
3 $5.26 $6.57 $7.88 $9.20 $10.51 $11.83 $13.14 $14.45 $15.77
4 $7.01 $8.76 $10.51 $12.26 $14.02 $15.77 $17.52 $19.27 $21.02
5 $8.76 $10.95 $13.14 $15.33 $17.52 $19.71 $21.90 $24.09 $26.28
6 $10.51 $13.14 $15.77 $18.40 $21.02 $23.65 $26.28 $28.91 $31.54
7 $12.26 $15.33 $18.40 $21.46 $24.53 $27.59 $30.66 $33.73 $36.79
8 $14.02 $17.52 $21.02 $24.53 $28.03 $31.54 $35.04 $38.54 $42.05
9 $15.77 $19.71 $23.65 $27.59 $31.54 $35.48 $39.42 $43.36 $47.30
10 $17.52 $21.90 $26.28 $30.66 $35.04 $39.42 $43.80 $48.18 $52.56
11 $19.27 $24.09 $28.91 $33.73 $38.54 $43.36 $48.18 $53.00 $57.82
12 $21.02 $26.28 $31.54 $36.79 $42.05 $47.30 $52.56 $57.82 $63.07

Yearly cost of running an 11 watt Compact Fluorescent Light

Hours a day / $kWh Local cost of electricity in dollars per kilowatt hour (kWh)
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
1 $0.32 $0.40 $0.48 $0.56 $0.64 $0.72 $0.80 $0.88 $0.96
2 $0.64 $0.80 $0.96 $1.12 $1.28 $1.45 $1.61 $1.77 $1.93
3 $0.96 $1.20 $1.45 $1.69 $1.93 $2.17 $2.41 $2.65 $2.89
4 $1.28 $1.61 $1.93 $2.25 $2.57 $2.89 $3.21 $3.53 $3.85
5 $1.61 $2.01 $2.41 $2.81 $3.21 $3.61 $4.02 $4.42 $4.82
6 $1.93 $2.41 $2.89 $3.37 $3.85 $4.34 $4.82 $5.30 $5.78
7 $2.25 $2.81 $3.37 $3.93 $4.50 $5.06 $5.62 $6.18 $6.75
8 $2.57 $3.21 $3.85 $4.50 $5.14 $5.78 $6.42 $7.07 $7.71
9 $2.89 $3.61 $4.34 $5.06 $5.78 $6.50 $7.23 $7.95 $8.67
10 $3.21 $4.02 $4.82 $5.62 $6.42 $7.23 $8.03 $8.83 $9.64
11 $3.53 $4.42 $5.30 $6.18 $7.07 $7.95 $8.83 $9.72 $10.60
12 $3.85 $4.82 $5.78 $6.75 $7.71 $8.67 $9.64 $10.60 $11.56

Suggestions: Remember to turn off lights when you leave a room. Invest in timers or motion sensors for security lighting applications. CFL/LED are also available for floodlights. CFL/LED also come in candle shaped fittings. CFL/LED can be used in some range hood lighting.

Related Sections: Timers Measurement Halogen Lights vs LED Lights

Local Assistance: Light Energy Calculator

References for further information 1 10 11 126 139

Table of Contents Reference Links

Halogen Lights vs. LED Lights

Light Emitting Diodes (LED) have been in the electronics industry for years but have recently scaled up in lighting output to now replace most light fixtures. They have extremely long life spans of up to 30,000 hours so you may never have to replace this light. This has to be balanced with their initial high purchase price of around $10 to $30. Compared to a 35 watt halogen bulb a LED light can give the same lighting output for 5 watts. This also means that 6-8 LED lights can run off a single halogen transformer. An alternative is to replace the whole 12 volt halogen fitting for a 240 volt CFL/LED fitting that fits in the same hole which uses only 7-11 watts. This type of fitting is approximately $30 plus fitting. They come with 240 volt leads with 3 pin plugs for simple replacement. LED lighting can also be seen in some traffic lights, path lighting, display fridges, garden lighting and solar powered lighting. An added benefit is they produce less heat output which in turn reduces air conditioning running costs.

Yearly cost of running a 50 watt halogen light bulb

Hours a day / $kWh Local cost of electricity in dollars per kilowatt hour (kWh)
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
1 $1.46 $1.83 $2.19 $2.56 $2.92 $3.29 $3.65 $4.02 $4.38
2 $2.92 $3.65 $4.38 $5.11 $5.84 $6.57 $7.30 $8.03 $8.76
3 $4.38 $5.48 $6.57 $7.67 $8.76 $9.86 $10.95 $12.05 $13.14
4 $5.84 $7.30 $8.76 $10.22 $11.68 $13.14 $14.60 $16.06 $17.52
5 $7.30 $9.13 $10.95 $12.78 $14.60 $16.43 $18.25 $20.08 $21.90
6 $8.76 $10.95 $13.14 $15.33 $17.52 $19.71 $21.90 $24.09 $26.28
7 $10.22 $12.78 $15.33 $17.89 $20.44 $23.00 $25.55 $28.11 $30.66
8 $11.68 $14.60 $17.52 $20.44 $23.36 $26.28 $29.20 $32.12 $35.04
9 $13.14 $16.43 $19.71 $23.00 $26.28 $29.57 $32.85 $36.14 $39.42
10 $14.60 $18.25 $21.90 $25.55 $29.20 $32.85 $36.50 $40.15 $43.80
11 $16.06 $20.08 $24.09 $28.11 $32.12 $36.14 $40.15 $44.17 $48.18
12 $17.52 $21.90 $26.28 $30.66 $35.04 $39.42 $43.80 $48.18 $52.56


Yearly cost of running a 5 watt LED light

Hours a day / $kWh Local cost of electricity in dollars per kilowatt hour (kWh)
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
1 $0.15 $0.18 $0.22 $0.26 $0.29 $0.33 $0.37 $0.40 $0.44
2 $0.29 $0.37 $0.44 $0.51 $0.58 $0.66 $0.73 $0.80 $0.88
3 $0.44 $0.55 $0.66 $0.77 $0.88 $0.99 $1.10 $1.20 $1.31
4 $0.58 $0.73 $0.88 $1.02 $1.17 $1.31 $1.46 $1.61 $1.75
5 $0.73 $0.91 $1.10 $1.28 $1.46 $1.64 $1.83 $2.01 $2.19
6 $0.88 $1.10 $1.31 $1.53 $1.75 $1.97 $2.19 $2.41 $2.63
7 $1.02 $1.28 $1.53 $1.79 $2.04 $2.30 $2.56 $2.81 $3.07
8 $1.17 $1.46 $1.75 $2.04 $2.34 $2.63 $2.92 $3.21 $3.50
9 $1.31 $1.64 $1.97 $2.30 $2.63 $2.96 $3.29 $3.61 $3.94
10 $1.46 $1.83 $2.19 $2.56 $2.92 $3.29 $3.65 $4.02 $4.38
11 $1.61 $2.01 $2.41 $2.81 $3.21 $3.61 $4.02 $4.42 $4.82
12 $1.75 $2.19 $2.63 $3.07 $3.50 $3.94 $4.38 $4.82 $5.26

Suggestions: Remember to turn off lights when you leave a room. Invest in timers or motion sensors for security lighting applications.

Related Sections: Timers Measurement Incandescent Lights vs Compact Fluorescent Lights

Local Assistance: Light Energy Calculator

References for further information 1 12 126 127 137 138

Table of Contents Reference Links

Television

Before buying a television try to work out its running and standby electrical consumption. Generally (LED LCD) screens use less energy than equal (LCD) TVs. Older Plasma/CRT/Rear projection televisions use much more power. Larger screens generally use more power than smaller screens. The standby consumption varies greatly from 1 to 70 watts and can contribute a high proportion to its running cost. If you want to reduce the standby costs consider connecting a timer to be on only while you normally watch TV or simply turn it off at the wall. Assume a television can use between $30 and $200 a year to run. A real time power measurement device on a single power point connected to the TV will show the running cost over time.

32 inch LCD TV with 80 watt running consumption for 1 year

Hours a day / $kWh Local cost of electricity in dollars per kilowatt hour (kWh)
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
1 $2.34 $2.92 $3.50 $4.09 $4.67 $5.26 $5.84 $6.42 $7.01
2 $4.67 $5.84 $7.01 $8.18 $9.34 $10.51 $11.68 $12.85 $14.02
3 $7.01 $8.76 $10.51 $12.26 $14.02 $15.77 $17.52 $19.27 $21.02
4 $9.34 $11.68 $14.02 $16.35 $18.69 $21.02 $23.36 $25.70 $28.03
5 $11.68 $14.60 $17.52 $20.44 $23.36 $26.28 $29.20 $32.12 $35.04
6 $14.02 $17.52 $21.02 $24.53 $28.03 $31.54 $35.04 $38.54 $42.05
7 $16.35 $20.44 $24.53 $28.62 $32.70 $36.79 $40.88 $44.97 $49.06
8 $18.69 $23.36 $28.03 $32.70 $37.38 $42.05 $46.72 $51.39 $56.06

Possible standby costs table per year

Standby Watts / $kWh Local cost of electricity in dollars per kilowatt hour (kWh)
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
1 $0.70 $0.61 $0.65 $0.79 $1.11 $1.75 $3.06 $5.91 $12.42
5 $3.50 $3.07 $3.23 $3.96 $5.55 $8.75 $15.32 $29.53 $62.08
10 $7.01 $6.14 $6.45 $7.91 $11.09 $17.49 $30.64 $59.06 $124.16
15 $10.51 $9.21 $9.68 $11.87 $16.64 $26.24 $45.97 $88.59 $186.24
20 $14.02 $12.28 $12.91 $15.83 $22.19 $34.98 $61.29 $118.12 $248.33
25 $17.52 $15.35 $16.13 $19.79 $27.73 $43.73 $76.61 $147.64 $310.41
30 $21.02 $18.42 $19.36 $23.74 $33.28 $52.47 $91.93 $177.17 $372.49
35 $24.53 $21.49 $22.59 $27.70 $38.82 $61.22 $107.26 $206.70 $434.57
40 $28.03 $24.56 $25.81 $31.66 $44.37 $69.96 $122.58 $236.23 $496.65
45 $31.54 $27.63 $29.04 $35.61 $49.92 $78.71 $137.90 $265.76 $558.73
50 $35.04 $30.70 $32.27 $39.57 $55.46 $87.46 $153.22 $295.29 $620.82
55 $38.54 $33.76 $35.49 $43.53 $61.01 $96.20 $168.54 $324.82 $682.90
60 $42.05 $36.83 $38.72 $47.49 $66.56 $104.95 $183.87 $354.35 $744.98
65 $45.55 $39.90 $41.95 $51.44 $72.10 $113.69 $199.19 $383.88 $807.06
70 $49.06 $42.97 $45.17 $55.40 $77.65 $122.44 $214.51 $413.40 $869.14

Suggestions: Turn off TV if not in the room; try to find the standby consumption of appliances. Australia has the OECD countries highest standby energy consumption per household at 87 watts average.

Related Sections: Timers Measurement Power board with remote One Watt Standby

Local Assistance: Appliance Energy Calculator

References for further information 1 4 13 15 144

Table of Contents Reference Links

Dryer

Dryers are basically a heater, motor and a fan. Drying clothes on a line is free alternative. Buy a dryer to suit your size requirements. If possible have a model with a sensor to determine when a load is dry. Clean the filters regularly for efficient use. Dryers that can reverse rotation regularly during the working cycle will dry clothes quicker. Some dryer have ducting kits that can be fitted to vent the heat outdoors. This is useful in warm or humid climates. In cold climates having the heat for the rest of the house may be an advantage? Assume the dryer will cost approximately $100 per year to run but confirm these costs by measuring usage with a power meter.

Suggestions: Use a clothes line instead, clean dryer filter regularly, and turn off at the power point when not in use

Related Sections: Measurement Draft Stopper Washing Machine

Local Assistance: Appliance Energy Calculator

References for further information 4 14 123

Table of Contents Reference Links

Washing Machine

The factors to consider when buying a washing machine include its size, electrical consumption, cycles available and water consumption. Front loading washing machines usually use less water and detergent. Some state governments are giving cash rebates for selecting water efficient washing machines. The Energy star rating is shown on washing machines. Front loading washing machines with inverter type motors have high spin cycles of around 1000 RPM that will reduce moisture in clothes quite well and this will save you drying time and money later. Selecting a wash cycle that is preferably short and uses cold water will reduce its running cost. Only using a washing machine with full loads will reduce the number of times you need to use it. Assume a washing machine will cost approximately $30 to $80 per year to run. If using hot water it adds 50 to 150 litres heating costs per load. Some washing machines can sense the load height and adjust water requirements automatically.

Suggestions: Use a short cold water cycle if possible, try to use with a full load only, turn off at the power point when not in use

Related Sections: Measurement Dryer Hot Water Solar Hot Water

Local Assistance: Appliance Energy Calculator

References for further information 4 14 123

Table of Contents Reference Links

Audio Equipment

These days audio devices in a house cover a wide range of products. Selecting a audio system that is appropriate for the room environment can save money in purchase price and running costs. Using headphones instead of speakers saves a great deal of power. If using speakers consider the new range of speakers based on neodymium magnets which convert electrical waveforms into sound more efficiently and they are also much smaller. Devices using switched mode power supplies will use less power, especially when running at lower volume levels and they too are smaller physically. Try to read a review of the equipment before you purchase. The standby load for these types of devices varies so turn them off at the wall when not using them.

Suggestions: Turn of devices at the wall when not in use

Related Sections: Measurement Power board with remote One Watt Standby Linear vs. Switched Mode Power supplies Standby costs table

Local Assistance: Appliance Energy Calculator

References for further information 4 14 15

Table of Contents Reference Links

DVD and Video players

This category is changing rapidly with the introduction of digital tuners, Blueray and hard disk being incorporated into new units. If possible try to have one unit than caters to all your needs, rather than running multiple devices. When not in active use pressing the off to standby power will save 10-20 watts. Not having a hard disk rewind feature on will save another up to 10 watts. Models with hard disks than spin down automatically after an idle period are preferable. The best systems will have internal clocks with battery backup so that the whole unit can be powered off at the wall and still keep time. Try to read a review of the equipment before you purchase. Entertainment consoles have many of the same characteristics as described above. Measure the consumption to find out how much your system costs to run.

Suggestions: Turn of devices at the wall when not in use

Related Sections: Measurement Power board with remote One Watt Standby Linear vs. Switched Mode Power supplies Standby costs table

Local Assistance: Appliance Energy Calculator

References for further information 4 14 15

Table of Contents Reference Links

Draft Stopper

This device prevents air travel between the rooms of a house and the roof loft when the exhaust fans are off. There are 2 models, one fits over an existing exhaust fan and the other is a combined exhaust fan and shutter. The purpose of these devices is to stop hot and cold air travelling between the roof loft and the rooms of a house. The overall insulation properties of the house are improved and the costs of heating and cooling the house are reduced a great deal by up to 30%.

Suggestions: Look for other places where hot or cold air can escape and consider sealing them. Close doors and windows when using air conditioning.

Related Sections: Insulation Air Conditioning

References for further information 16 17

Table of Contents Reference Links

Insulation

Insulation can keep your house warmer or cooler by preventing heat travelling between the roof and the rooms of the house. Having insulation installed can reduce your heating and cooling losses by 60%. Investigate the best insulation R value needed for your area. The return on investment is usually less than 4 years. Installation methods are important for effectiveness. A snug fitting between trusses is best, electrical cable should sit above insulation if possible, halogen down lights require a clearance area around them which is another reason to have them replaced. Special covers can be bought to protect down light clearances. Insulation will reduce the number of day's active heating and cooling required thereby saving electricity. Some state governments are offering cash rebates for insulation installation that follows local standards. Consider installing passive or active roof ventilators and under eave vents to reduce the temperature above the insulation which helps prevents potential heat travelling through the insulation to the rooms below.

Suggestions: Look for other places where hot or cold air can escape and consider sealing them. Close doors and windows when using air conditioning. Consider tinted, laminated or double glazed windows for further insulation. Install insulation in the months and hours of day where the roof loft is of a reasonable temperature. Consider changing the roof colour to white to reduce house temperatures.

Related Sections: Air Conditioning Draft Stopper

References for further information 18 19 20 21 145

Table of Contents Reference Links

One Watt Standby

The Australian Government announced that electrical appliances sold after 2012 will need to have a standby power consumption of 1 watt or less and other countries are looking at similar goals. Some electronic devices such as computer TFT screens and laptops already meet this standard. The use of switched mode power supplies and a new range of power control silicon chips will help address this requirement. Standard power supply sizes are available now that meet the 1 watt standby.

Suggestions: Look for products with low standby power consumption. Turn on power management for computers.

Related Sections: Measurement Linear vs. Switched Mode Power supplies Energy Star 4 80 Plus Power Supplies Free Best Information Technology Practices

References for further information 22 23 24

Table of Contents Reference Links

Linear vs. Switched Mode Power supplies

These are the 2 main styles of power supplies used to make Direct Current to run various appliances. Linear power supplies have fewer components but are larger and more inefficient especially when lightly loaded. For external DC adapters, linear power supplies have larger transformers and run warmer than an equivalent switch mode power supply. Switched mode power supplies (SMPS) can be seen powering laptops and modern mobile phone chargers. Their efficiency is usually at least 70% and can be greater than 90%. If buying a computer try to confirm it is using an 80 Plus (more than 80% efficient) switch mode power supply. Run battery chargers on a timer instead of continuously to save some power. Consider replacing external linear power supplies with switch mode power supplies if you understand voltage, polarity, connectors and load. This could be useful for applications such as broadband routers that run 24 hours a day. Some SMPS work with a large range of input voltage making then useful around the world (e.g. 90 to 250 volts). Some suppliers are now not selling linear power supplies at all.

Suggestions: Always select switch mode power supplies if possible, turn off devices at the wall when not in use. Consider charging some devices using USB power from the computer or in the car using 12 volts when in normal use.

Related Sections: 80 Plus Power Supplies Timers

References for further information 25 26

Table of Contents Reference Links

Power board with remote

The best way to switch off devices is at the power point. The problem is that some power points are not always readily accessible. To overcome this problem, consider using a power board that includes a foot switch for under desk. Use a power board with a master and slave arrangement; when the master is activated then all the slave sockets also power up. This could be useful in a home theatre. Another alternative is to look at remote control of power points directly or via automation. Remote control system for a power point can be purchased for around $40. A remote control power boards with 4 controlled switches are available for around $60. This would be useful to turn off entertainment equipment when access to the power points is difficult.

Automation is a much more expensive consideration by existing mains cabling which is used to send control signals to turn devices on and off. Devices than can be controlled automatically include lighting, power points, shutters, curtains, heating, cooling and irrigation. Related systems can also take care of telephony, computer networks, audio distribution, video distribution and alarm monitoring.

Suggestions: Connect entertainment equipment on a common power board that can be switched off with one switch when not in use. Simple automation can come in kit form for retrofitting a building.

Related Sections: USB Power board

References for further information 17 26 27 122 131 147 149

Table of Contents Reference Links

Facebook Linked In Delicious Reddit Tweet