Use Technology Efficiently



1+1= ?

Third Generation Virtual Computing







The new Information Technology Frontier


What is virtualization?

  • A host computer running isolated guest operating systems \ applications
  • A Virtual Machine (VM) is a representation of a physical machine by software
  • VM can work independently of the host architecture

Virtual Machine BIOS settings arrange resources available for the Virtual Machine. Eg Memory available, location in disk of VM, network card to use. You can set minimum and maximum CPU allocation allowed.
The same VM can run on a laptop, server, desktop (any brand or model above minimum specifications)


Why Virtual?

  • Use hardware efficiently
  • Save electricity at the server / UPS / cooling system
  • Set up new computer projects quickly
  • Run development systems up off-line on desktop PC
  • Save money on yearly hardware budgets
  • Save space in computer room
  • Less network hardware required

Virtual Machines can be networked without wires internally.


Who is involved?

  • Linux and Xen project
  • Microsoft and Virtual PC software
  • VMWARE and multiple software systems
  • Apple has visualisation built into OSX Leopard
  • Sun Systems


Where is the industry heading?

  • Future server buying trends are forecasting virtualisation will reduce need
  • Green IT is becoming a hot issue
  • The ability to perform constantly more with the same hardware suits virtualisation


Virtualisation Possibilities

Server with Virtual Machines

  • 8 CPU server
  • 48 GB RAM
  • 12 Virtual Machines
  • 750 Watts

Storage Area Network

  • SAN with 36000 GB of storage
  • 300 Watts


  • 220 mm rack space (height)
  • 1050 Watts total
  • ~ $32,000 in hardware


Virtual Applications

  • Install an application in a protected space with its own installation files and registry
  • All multiple versions of the same application to run side by side
  • Test applications and remove then cleanly
  • No more bloated registry and DLL hell
Create virtual apps for IE7, Open Office, Firefox
Run multiple versions of Office on the same PC
Applications can be switched on or off as required. They appear in Start menu when switched on
Run a Browser as a protected Virtual application
Wise Package Solution can now build virtual applications


Virtual application deployment

Virtual Application

Apple and Windows


Apple and Windows

Boot Camp allows Windows XP SP2 or Vista to be installed on a MAC. It gets its own partition.
All drivers are provided by Leopard
Run at full speed either MAC or Windows
Needs 10GB disk space and full version Windows CD

Windows and Linux


VMWARE Player can run on Linux or Windows
It’s free
VM of Linux distributions, Open source aplications available for free
Test applications across multiple operating systems


Windows and Linux


Windows Virtual PC

Virtual PC

Free download
Run server operating systems on your desktop (XP, Windows 8 beta, Windows 2003)
Test standard operating environments for servers
Setup virtual machine configuration and then install OS
2 files made 1 for configuration (.vmc), 1 for virtual disk (.vhd). These can be copied or moved as required.
Samples virtual disks available for Windows 2008 beta3, trail version of Windows 8, SQL 2005, Sharepoint Server 2007, Visual Studio 2005.
Each VM can have its own IP address and they can communicate to each other
Can be used for DOS and various Windows

Virtual Server 2005 R2

  • Works currently on top of Windows 2003 Server (free download)
  • Make virtual machines of legacy NT4 and Windows 2000 Serves on modern hardware
  • 64 virtual machines limit
  • Each virtual machine is limited to 1 CPU
  • Microsoft is running over 1200 VMs on this platform

Same virtual machine files can be used in Virtual PC, Virtual Server 2005 and Windows Longhorn free download
Can work with up to 32 processors
Each virtual machine is limited to 1 CPU (CPUs are shared amongst virtual machines)
Support SCSI drives
Each virtual machine can have CPU min max , total CPU for virtual PCs %
3.6 GB maximum memory allocation per VM

Windows 2008 Server virtualisation

  • Up to 4 CPU can be used by a VM
  • Support Linux VM
  • Can use ISO images
  • Built for server consolidation in mind
  • Slow down server sprawl
  • Get good utilisation of servers
  • Standard licences allow 4 virtual servers
  • Data centre licence allows unlimited VM
  • Up to 32 GB memory per VM supported
Easy to copy virtual machines between machines (need Sysprep in duplicating system on the same network)


Thin Clients

  • Very quick to start
  • Can be run locally or remotely
  • Thin clients are secure, only use minimal power and do not need upgrading
  • Centralise all storage requirements
  • Only screen, mouse and keyboard changes go over the network

NEC thin clients use 13 Watts.


Thin Client Example


Virtual PC Server


  • Runs 20-40 thin clients per server
  • Full multimedia thin clients available
  • Can use wireless, Ethernet, modem or 3G card connection
  • Can also be used for VOIP telephony
  • Use VPN connections

Thin Client


Linux Xen

  • Citrix and Xen are working together
  • 64 bit hypervisor management for fast input / output
  • Up to 8 CPUs per VM
  • Up to 32 GB RAM per VM
  • VM can be moved between servers without downtime
  • Supports Windows 2000 / 2003, Linux, XP

XenEnterprise4 has similar features to VMware Infrastructure 3 Enterprise
GNU open source licence
In distributions: Debian, Fedora
Supports up to 64 GB RAM
Virtual machines can work over up to 32 CPUs


VMWARE Workstation

  • Supports 19 versions of Windows and 26 versions of Linux
  • All VMs have VNC access
  • Up to 8GB RAM per VM
  • Create whole desktop VMs
  • Create VMs for USB devices
  • Make VMs for use later on VM player or ESX server
  • Great for development testing on VM

VMkernel controls the physical devices using drivers in a computer used by VMs.

Check you have adequate memory for host plus VMs
Check if caching is available in storage options
Gigabit NIC and switches preferred




Allows a VM to be the visible OS
Will work the same on different model PCs
Common uniform environment seen
Can set up VPN access for VM and no access by host. Great for security for not controlled home computers to access work safely.
Can have expiry date on VM
Windows XP SP2 plus Office can fit on a 4 GB USB drive



  • VMs can use up to 4 CPUs
  • VMs can each use up to 64 GB of memory each
  • iSCSI, SAN, 4GB Fibre SAN support
  • Can use Ghost images of existing servers to make virtual machines
  • Memory allocation to VMs can change with need

Sits on top of Windows XP or Windows 2003 server.
Local admin installs ACE
Needs 1 user account
Login can go straight to VM
VM configuration of an existing server should imitate the CPU type, OS type / service pack, RAM, disk, network settings
Ports not used can be disabled in VM configuration to improve performance
Can work with SCSI, SAN or local disks. SAN is seen by VM as a SCSI device.
VMs can be run one at a time to isolate its performance
SCSI tape drives can be mapped from VMs
Gigabit networking is preferred for servers with VMs
VMWare HA Cluster can have another ESX server start a VM host fails.
Can work with Microsoft Active Directory
VMs are isolated so that even if one crashes it does not affect the others
Can set minimum and maximum CPU allocation for each VM


VMWARE Infrastructure

Sits on top of Windows XP or Windows 2003 server.
Local admin installs ACE
Needs 1 user account
Login can go straight to VM
VM configuration of an existing server should imitate the CPU type, OS type / service pack, RAM, disk, network settings
Ports not used can be disabled in VM configuration to improve performance
Able to have > 10 VMs per processor average
Can provide VMs for desktops
Needs less rack space and power
Virtual Center Management server can be a VM itself. It can raise alarms for high CPU or memory usage.
VMWare HA Cluster can have another ESX server start a VM host fails.
VMs can be set up to work on segmented virtual LANs
Cluster of ESX server computers managed as one.
Resource pools allows control of cluster storage
VM load is spread across cluster. If hardware fails then VMs start on remaining hardware.
DRS balances VM requirements versus cluster resources
VMs can have completed backups independent of guest OS
HA uses resources better and does not require special hardware to operate for failovers
Can set priority list of VM to start up in order after hardware failure
Each VM has its own subdirectory which can be mirrored for backup. File level backup and incremental backup also available.
Reduce power, cooling, space requirements by 70-80%
Less networking ports and cabling required
Fibre channel can throttle bandwidth of connections. iSCSI can be overloaded at 1Gbps resulting in dropped packets.


VMWare Vmotion

VMWARE Vmotion

VMware Vmotion allows VMs to move between hardware without stopping.
Allows best use of resources.
Can be used to for maintenance of a server.
Some spare capacity is needed in case of hardware failure
Virtual Centre will show status of cluster and if HA can be achieved.
When starting a VM a warning message will occur if HA cannot be achieved with start-up.
HA monitors a heartbeat of the cluster servers
HA requires shared storage such as SAN, NAS or iSCSI
Up to 16 ESX servers connected in one V motion group
Servers CPU need to be the same class/manufacturer
Gigabit networking required for Vmotion. Best practice is to have another NIC for management